This date represents a turning point: Poussin abandons the search for public orders and their large compositions for Roman churches and palaces to concentrate on medium-sized canvases for a group of very prudent collectors. Poussin’s altarpiece did not meet with critical acclaim, however, and it effectively helped to end his career as a public painter in Rome. The works for the Jesuits brought him to the attention of the Italian poet Giambattista Marino, who commissioned a series of drawings based on Ovidian mythology and encouraged Poussin to visit Italy. Poussin was a leading pioneer of the classical French Baroque style. Corrections? About 1612 Poussin departed for Paris, where he studied anatomy, perspective, and architecture and worked with the minor masters Georges Lallemand and Ferdinand Elle. His father served in a senior position under Karl IX and Henry of Navarra. Ses compositions ont influencé après sa mort de nombreux peintres ; mais aussi certains courants du XXe siècle comme le cubisme. Following a serious illness, he marries Anna Maria Dughet, the daughter of a French chef who cared for him, whose brother, Gaspard Dughet, later becomes his pupil. Apollo in Love with Daphne, painted in 1664 and incomplete upon his death, summarises the strange traits of his final period: the wildness and grandeur of the inanimate, calm and emotionless nature of the human actors, which come directly from the mind of the artist. About 1627 Poussin became acquainted with the scholar, antiquarian, and collector Cassiano dal Pozzo, who was destined to become his chief Italian patron and one of his closest friends. Biography; Nicolas Poussin Nicolas Poussin. About 1622 Poussin executed six large tempera paintings for the Jesuits (none of those survive), and in the following year he received a commission for a painting in a Notre-Dame chapel. Nicolas Poussin’s early biographer was his friend Giovanni Pietro Bellori, who relates that Poussin was born near Les Andelys in Normandy and that he received an education that included some Latin, which would stand him in good stead. Biographies, portraits, vie et oeuvre des personnages célèbres ou méconnus de France. Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665): Biography of Classical Baroque Painter, Noted for Allegorical Paintings like Rape of the Sabine Women (Louvre) Nicolas Poussin Biography of French Classical Baroque Painter. 1637 Soon after his arrival, his early champion, Marino, moved from Rome to Naples, where he died in 1625. Detail from, The Great Bacchanal With Woman Playing A … Having worked pretty much all of his life in Rome, Poussin is renowned for his paintings that depicted mythology and ancient history. A French classical painter, Nicolas Poussin has been an inspiration for countless number of great artists since the 17th century. Nicolas Poussin, 17th century classical painter, • 1594 : Born near Les Andelys (Normandy, France) He creates a new genre, the “ideal landscape”, recomposed in the studio, where we find the idea of an intimate liaison between nature and man, put in its place at the centre of a majestic setting – a derivative of his neo-stoicism. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Determining the exact chronology of his works during these years is highly problematic. Falling victim to intrigues on the part of Parisian painters, including Simon Vouet, he decides to return to Rome in September 1642. Biographie, portrait pour connaître la vie, naissance et mort d'un personnage historique, de notre histoire, célèbre ou méconnu. Nicolas Poussin, (born June 1594, Les Andelys, Normandy [France]—died November 19, 1665, Rome, Papal States [Italy]), French painter and draftsman who founded the French Classical tradition. 1630 Biography of POUSSIN, Nicolas (b. 1642 The Landscape with Diana and Orion is an allegory on the origin of clouds. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Poussin served his apprenticeship in Rome by making copies after antiquity and the masters of the Renaissance and by studying the works of the Classicizing artists of his own day, including the Bolognese painter Domenichino. Peintre d'histoire, compositions religieuses, mythologiques, à personnages, ou encore de paysages animés. He is charged with creating two altarpieces, painting two large allegoric canvases for Richelieu and decorating the Grande Galerie of the Louvre Palace, even though he has become used to small canvases. MAIN A-Z INDEX - A-Z of ARTISTS. Poussin seeks to translate the emotions of different people through their gestures and facial expressions: the viewer should be able to feel what is felt by each actor and to decipher their role in history (The rape of the Sabine Women, The Israelites Gathering the Manna in the Desert). Required fields are marked *. The artist executed the majority of his canvases in this intensely idealized style. 1612 Most were never finished, but experimented with different variants of the same theme. in a more rigorous manner: The Adoration of the Magi, The Adoration of the Golden Calf or The Crossing of the Red Sea. Nicolas Poussin is a French painter who is generally credited for having pioneered the classic French painting style. Many of these works are poetic mythologies on themes of unrequited love, which are pervaded by an air of languor and melancholy. The featured people are reduced to simple geometric forms. See available paintings, works on paper, and prints and multiples for sale and learn about the artist. Biographie de Nicolas Poussin. Professor of Fine Art; Director, The Barber Institute of Fine Arts, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, West Midlands, England. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Histoire France, Patrimoine. Courte biographie de Nicolas Poussin : les dates clés • 1594 : Naissance près des Andelys (Normandie, France) • 1624 : Arrivée à Rome, 1ère commande importante pour Saint-Pierre.Le peintre trouve surtout son inspiration dans des sujets poétiques > L’Inspiration du Poète He was schooled in many subjects, including Latin and letters, but showed a talent for drawing (he was apparently scolded by his teachers for doodling in his books). Nicolas Poussin was a highly skilled draughtsman who produced endless numbers of study drawings in preparation for his complex painted compositions. Around 1633-1634, his reputation reaches Paris and his paintings are sent by Barberini to Cardinal Richelieu. In their emotional intensity these pictures reveal an ardent Romanticism in the young Poussin that he would soon suppress. Nicolas Poussin - retrouvez toute l'actualité, nos dossiers et nos émissions sur France Culture, le site de la chaîne des savoirs et de la création. Towards 1645, the painter begins to take an interest in landscapes, preserving the mathematical order of The Holy Family on the Steps and applying it to nature, with the whole thing being artfully organised thanks to buildings that geographically organise the space. The period that follows is the most fruitful of his career, resulting in the most perfect expressions of French classicism. Omissions? During this time, he meets his first patron, Italian Giambattista Marino, known in France as the “Cavalier Marin”, poet to Marie de Medici, who commissions him to do a suite of drawings illustrating Ovid’s Metamorphoses. His early sketches attracted the notice of Quentin Varin, who passed some … He spent virtually all of his working life in Rome, where he specialized in history paintings—depicting scenes from the Bible, ancient history, and mythology—that are notable for their narrative clarity and dramatic force. Born in or near the town of Les Andelys in Normandy, Poussin received an education in Latin and letters, but early on he showed an inclination for drawing. Another early friend and biographer, André Félibien, reported that "He was busy without cease filling his sketchbooks with an infinite number of different figures which only his imagination could produce." • 1640-1642 : Back to Paris under pressure from Louis XIII and Richelieu Poussin’s artistic mastery is really revealed in The Empire of Flora, a complex composition painted 1631. Above all the painter finds his inspiration in poetic subjects > The Inspiration of the Poet • 1630-1640 : 1st period in Rome. Her brother, Gaspard Dughet, eventually became one of the foremost landscape painters of 17th-century Rome and took the surname Poussin from his more-illustrious brother-in-law. L’art de Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665) est réputé difficile et réservé aux seuls initiés. He later went on to Paris, where he worked under minor artists who painted in a style that combined the Mannerism of the Second School of Fountainbleau with certain aspects of Italian baroque art. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Nicolas-Poussin, The Metropolitan Museum of Art - Biography of Nicolas Poussin, Web Gallery of Art - Biography of Nicolas Poussin, Art Encyclopedia - Biography of Nicolas Poussin, National Gallery of Art - Biography of Nicolas Poussin, Nicolas Poussin - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). « Cette toile est le plus grand des deux fragments d'une peinture de Poussin. Nicolas Poussin was born in the town of Les Andelys in Normandy in June, 1594. His first years there were marked by hardship and misfortune. • 1624 : Arrives in Rome, 1st significant order for Saint-Pierre. Nicolas Poussin, né le 15 juin 1594 et mort le 19 novembre 1665, est un peintre français du XVIIe siècle, représentant de la peinture française classique. One year later, Pozzo assisted him in securing the commission for The Martyrdom of St. Erasmus, an altarpiece for St. Peter’s. He was the child of a noble family who had fallen on hard times. In these paintings, nature takes on a new character: it is no longer orderly and subject to the laws of reason but wild, invading the painting where man occupies an increasingly negligible space. Nicolas Poussin naît en 1594 en Normandie. Poussin wurde als Sohn eines verarmten Landedelmanns und ehemaligen Soldaten der königlichen Armee geboren. Aged 17, Poussin left Normandy for bigger and better things, namely the bustling metropolis of Paris. Nicolas Poussin, the greatest French artist of the 17th century, is considered one of the founders of European classicism, a movement in art, based on antique and Renaissance heritage. In Paris, most likely working at the studio of Nancy-born Georges Lallemant. Juni 1594 in Les Andelys, Normandie; † 19. Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665), one of the greatest French painters, rationally synthesized the diverse tendencies of French and Italian art. November 1665 in Rom) war ein französischer Maler des klassizistischen Barocks. • 1650-1665 : The landscape is taking a dominant place in his last compositions, where nature takes on a new character: no longer orderly and subject to the laws of reason but wild, invading the painting where man occupies an increasingly negligible space > The Four Seasons – synthesis of his late style, Landscape with Diana and Orion His clientele changes; from this point on, he seems to depend on a circle of experts, including Commendatore Cassiano dal Pozzo who is collecting documents illustrating life in ancient Rome and calls on artists to draw various accounts of imperial Rome: classical sculpture, ancient architecture. Nicolas Poussin was a French artist known for his paintings and drawings of Arcadian landscapes and historic narratives. Nicolas Poussin was born near the town in Les Andelys in Normandy in 1594. L'un des plus grands maîtres classiques de la peinture française, génie européen, comme le rappelle l'exposition Nicolas Poussin de 1994 à Paris, à l'occasion de la célébratio… Vie et oeuvre du peintre Nicolas Poussin. • 1665 : Dies in Rome. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The fruits of these studies are apparent in his first great masterpiece, The Death of Germanicus (1627), painted for Cardinal Francesco Barberini. Find an in-depth biography, exhibitions, original artworks for sale, the latest news, and sold auction prices. Le nom de Nicolas Poussin (1594–1665) est associé au classicisme français et au règne de Louis XIII, bien que l’artiste ait passé la majeure partie de sa carrière à Rome. His work is a salient example of lucid control by the mind over the senses. • 1630-1640 : 1st period in Rome. Choosing subjects which allow him to stage large historic scenes, notably from the Old Testament, he balances his compositions more, i.e. Until the discovery of The Death of the Virgin, the so-called “Marino drawings” were the only certain works to survive from his pre-Roman years. The Four Seasons (painted between 1660 and 1664 for the Duke of Richelieu) constitute the synthesis of his late style: in a setting emphasising the beauty of nature, the theme of the succession of the season merges with that of hours, periods of human life; the biblical narrative combines with classical mythology in a synthesis between Christianity and paganism. Dictionnaire biographique des célébrités et personnages historiques. A short biography of Nicolas Poussin : key dates • 1594 : Born near Les Andelys (Normandy, France) • 1624 : Arrives in Rome, 1st significant order for Saint-Pierre. These works reveal the influence of the art of Venice—which he had visited en route to Rome—in their glowing colourism and loosely constructed compositions. Nicolas Poussin est leur fils unique. Among these is Paul Freart de Chantelou, secretary to Sublet de Noyers, with whom he maintains extensive correspondence, which provides a wealth of information on his existence, his ideas and his way of working throughout the coming years. Il est le fils de Jean Poussin (né vers 1555-1560), né d'une petite famille noble de Soissons et arrivé en Normandie après la prise de Vernon en 1590 pendant les guerres de religion. Anthony Blunt, Art et Architecture en France, 1500-1700, Editions Macula, 2000, Your email address will not be published. Main source (see bibliography): Peintre d'histoire, compositions religieuses, mythologiques, à personnages, paysages animés. Serenity and simplicity are found in his figured scenes, eliminating almost all picturesque detail. Arrives in Rome, after having spent several months in Venice. Author of. He tries, and fails, to go to Rome on two occasions, then returns to Paris where he meets Philippe de Champaigne and works with him for the Queen Mother at the Luxembourg Palace. We see the influence of Descartes in the mathematical construction of the space in the painting, for example in The Holy Family on the Steps dating from 1648, where the whole space is organised in geometric terms. Nicolas Poussin was a famous French painter and draftsman who became a central figure of the Roman and European art in the seventeenth century. Your email address will not be published. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Nicolas Poussin - Nicolas Poussin - The final years: Poussin continued to paint three or four pictures a year in the 1650s, despite being increasingly ill. Huile sur toile, 80 × 87,5 cm, Dulwich Picture Gallery, Londres. 1633 Sa mère est Marie de Laisement (née vers 1560), la fille d'un échevin de la ville et jeune veuve quand elle se marie à Jean en 1592. Nicolas Poussin, (born June 1594, Les Andelys, Normandy [France]—died November 19, 1665, Rome, Papal States [Italy]), French painter and draftsman who … Landscape remains his favoured mode of expression, but his style changes once again. POUSSIN, NICOLAS (1594 – 1665). Stricken with illness about 1630, Poussin was nursed back to health by the family of Jacques Dughet, whose daughter, Anne-Marie, he married the same year. At the end of the 1640s, the landscape becomes the indifferent location of the ephemeral destiny of man (The Funeral of Phocion), rigorously constructed upon an intellectual mode, in opposition with the misfortunes of human destinies. Nicolas Poussin's early biographer was his friend Giovanni Pietro Bellori, who relates that Poussin was born near Les Andelys in Normandy and that he received an education that included some Latin, which would stand him in good stead. Une image plus petite avec putto musicien se trouvait probablement à gauche de ce fragme… Il suit des études probablement dans une école élémentaire puis dans un c… • 1642 : Returns to Rome (he does not leave the city again) In the spring of 1624 Poussin arrived in Rome, where—except for a stay in Paris during 1640–42—he was to remain for the rest of his life. He was the child of a noble family who had fallen on hard times. The Israelites Gathering the Manna in the Desert. He works at his own pace for this small base of clients, taking time to prepare each of his compositions meticulously. Nicolas Poussin was born near Les Andelys in Normandy where he began his study of art. Nicolas Poussin was born near the town in Les Andelys in Normandy in 1594. Following an illness and a wedding, Poussin abandons the large compositions of public orders to concentrate on medium-sized canvases for his group of very prudent collectors > The Empire of Flora, The rape of the Sabine Women, The Manna, 1st set of Seven Sacraments During this period he was introduced to engravings after the masters of the Italian Renaissance; this work inspired in him such enthusiasm that he made two attempts to visit Rome, both abortive, between 1619 and 1622. Poussin was born in Normandy, in Les-Andelys, in 1594. This talent was encouraged by the itinerant painter Quentin Varin, who visited Les Andelys in 1611–12 and became Poussin’s first teacher. This evolution is obvious in the second version of The Arcadian Shepherds, which is calculated, contemplative and philosophical whilst the first version was much more spontaneous, lively and poetic. With Moses saved from the Water, painted in 1651, Poussin succeeds in translating the commotion of the women discovering the child through the contrast of the drapery. We do not know much about Poussin up until his thirties. En témoigne l’immense littérature qui lui a été consacrée depuis le 17e siècle. Nicolas Poussin : biographie, actualités et … Nicolas Poussin Biography Nicolas Poussin, the greatest French artist of the 17th century, is considered one of the founders of European classicism, a movement in art, based on antique and Renaissance heritage. Biography. He does not leave the Eternal City again. Many of these works depict the Holy Family, a purely contemplative theme ideally suited to the serenity of his art during that phase. The years of 1630-1640 correspond to the first real period of Poussin, immersed in an atmosphere of passionate and erudite archaeological studies, during which he paints Rinaldo and Armida, or The Arcadian Shepherds – Et In Arcadia Ego, which is influenced by the poetry of Titian. View Nicolas Poussin’s 604 artworks on artnet. The original family name was Lavallée, a name of French origin. Nicolas Poussin, né au hameau de Villers, commune des Andelys, en juin 1594, mort à Rome le 19 novembre 1665, est un peintre français du XVII e siècle, représentant majeur du classicisme pictural. Landscapes give new impetus to his creations. 1665 (November) 1640 He was schooled in many subjects, including Latin and letters, but showed a talent for drawing (he was apparently scolded by his teachers for doodling in his books). The painting was discovered in a small church in the town of Sterrebeek outside Brussels and restored. The composition is stripped back, constructed using horizontals and verticals only. Vénus et Mercure (1626-27). Having more or less become a recluse, working more to satisfy his need to paint than to please others, his final works reflect internal soul-searching. Poussin was born in Normandy, in Les-Andelys, in 1594. Buy Poussin Prints Now from Amazon. Poussin turns towards classic allegory and paints the first series of the Seven Sacraments for Cassiano dal Pozzo, which portrays the liturgy of the first Christians and in which the style of this first period in Rome finds completion. Nicolas Poussin [pu'sɛ̃] (* 15. Nicolas Poussin, né au hameau de Villers, commune des Andelys, le 15 juin 1594, décédé à Rome le 19 novembre 1665, est un peintre français du XVIIe siècle, représentant majeur du classicisme pictural. After a period of real poverty, he receives several significant orders, including an altarpiece for Saint-Pierre: The Martyrdom of Saint Erasmus, a large-scale work which is not very well received. Above all the painter finds his inspiration in poetic subjects > The Inspiration of the Poet 1594, Les Andelys, d. 1665, Roma) in the Web Gallery of Art, a searchable image collection and database of European painting, sculpture and architecture (200-1900) POUSSIN, NICOLAS (1594 – 1665), French painter. Nicolas Poussin was born in Les Andelys on June 15, 1594 and showed a talent for drawing early on. Depuis 1624, actif aussi en Italie. Deciding to concentrate instead on easel pictures of increasing subtlety and refinement, Poussin devoted much of his art of the late 1620s to romantic mythologies inspired by Titian and his fellow Venetians. He seeks the concentration of effects rather than their richness by limiting vocabulary as much as possible. Dans la mythologie romaine, Vénus est la déesse de lamour, de la séduction et de la beauté et Mercure le dieu du commerce, des voyages et le messager des autres dieux. Nicolas Poussin Villers 1594 - Lucina 1665 Nicolas Poussin was born in the Normandy town of Villers-en-Vexin in 1594, where he spent his childhood on his father's farm near the Norman village Les Andelys. However, an increasing level of skill in draftsmanship and use of colour in the large number of paintings datable to this period have led to a general consensus among scholars of the progression of his art between 1624 and 1627. In terms of religious themes, he now prefers the New Testament and the fundamental subjects of the Gospels – the Holy Family, the crucifixion, the burial – and works with variations surrounding the victory of will on the passions of stoic Roman historians. The result does not necessarily convince everyone, but he succeeds in forming a real circle of admirers who are faithful clients and follow him for what remains of his life. His earliest works are characterized by a sensuality and colouristic richness indebted to Venetian art, especially to Titian, but by 1633 Poussin had repudiated this overtly seductive style in favour of a more rational and disciplined manner that owed much to the Classicism of Raphael and antiquity. Updates? 1624 Nicolas Poussin Biography. Nicolas Poussin naît en juin 1594 au hameau de Villers dans l'actuelle commune des Andelys. He spent his working life in Rome, except for a brief period when he served as First Painter to the King in France. The French Baroquepainter Quentin Varin came across his work whilst passing through Poussin's town and encouraged him to go into p… Born near Les Andelys (Normandy, France). Dies in Rome, leaving just over 200 paintings (known of at present), a quarter of which are kept in France, primarily at the Louvre Museum, and some 450 drawings, which are mainly to be found at the Louvre Museum and at Windsor Castle. Returns to Paris in December, under pressure from Sublet de Noyers and, indirectly, Louis XIII and Richelieu. Inspired by comparable compositions on ancient sarcophagi, this is the first heroic deathbed scene in the artist’s career—and in the entire history of painting—and it spawned countless later imitations. Toward the end of his life, Poussin’s art underwent a further transformation as he diversified to depict landscapes and a group of profoundly pantheistic allegorical works that were ultimately concerned with the order and harmony of nature. • 1642-1650 : The most fruitful period of his career, creating the most perfect expressions of French classicism, where he seeks the concentration of effects rather than their richness by limiting vocabulary as much as possible > 2d version of The Arcadian Shepherds, 2d set of Seven Sacraments, Eliezer and Rebecca…